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IEEE Citation Style: Images/Videos

This guide provides information on the 2023 edition of the IEEE Citation Style as used at the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology.


Cite the sources where you get your images from, not the images themselves. Treat an image as if it were a piece of information that you want to quote in your report, except it is a visual quote instead of text.


Where did you find the image you want to use? Reference list entry
From a Book or Product Manual Cite the book or product manual where you got the image from. 
From an Article  Cite the article where you got the image from. 
From a Webpage Cite the webpage where you for the image from. 
From Course Materials  Cite the course materials where you got the image from. 
From another type of source Consult our 'More Sources' page or contact your librarian

In-Text citation for images you did not create

The in-text citation for images appears as a caption underneath the image that you copied or adapted for your paper. Begin the caption with the word "Figure", a number, and a title. Provide the word "Source:" and the reference list entry number in brackets. 

If you adapted the figure, begin the citation with "Adapted from" followed by the citation number in brackets. Any figure or image that is modified or annotated is considered to be adapted. You do not need the words Adapted from if you have made no changes to the original image, including re-sizing, cropping, and/or modifying the image resolution.


Figure 1: Wind Turbine                                                  
Source: Adapted from [3]                                                                       

You do not need to create a reference list entry for images you created yourself. These include photos you have taken, diagrams or blueprints you created, drawings you have made and scanned into a jpeg, etc. If you are ever uncertain, please contact your Librarian

In-Text Citation for Images you Created

The in-text citation for images you created appears as a caption underneath the image in your report. Begin the caption with the word "Figure", a number, and a title. Follow this with "Source: Primary". 


blank example image to show how to create in-text citation of an image you created yourself.
Figure 1: Title of Image
Source: Primary

Online Video

  Template Example
Reference list entry [#] Video Owner/Creator, Location (if available). Title of Video. (Abbreviated Month Day, Year). Accessed: Abbreviated Month Day, Year. [Online Video]. Available: URL [1] The Engineering Mindset. How ELECTRICITY Works - Working Principle. (Oct. 18, 2017). Accessed: Apr. 22, 2021. [Online Video]. Available:

What if. . .

Scenario Solution Example
No video owner/creator listed

Look for a corporate video owner/creator. You can also use the uploaders user name (as is done in the the example to the right) if no personal author is listed or known.

[1] Alberta Energy Regulator. Braiding Environmental Knowledge and Technology. (Oct. 21, 2019). Accessed: Apr. 23, 2021. [Online Video]. Available:
Uploader is not the video owner/creator Locate the original source. Otherwise, do not use this video as a source. It is potentially in copyright violation. N/A
I can't find the location of a video Exclude the location See template example above

Is your scenario not covered in this table?  Check the official IEEE reference guide or ask your liaison for help.

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