Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
- Vancouver Style uses a numbered placeholder system. This means that each source of information will be given a number, assigned in the order in which they appear in your assignment. Please note that in Vancouver Style, the numbers can appear in brackets or as superscript but the form used at SAIT is in brackets.
- If you cite the same source more than once, use the number you originally assigned again.
- If you are directly quoting from a source (rather than paraphrasing), you must include the page number in your in-text citation. If you are using a source that does not have page numbers, refer to the "Citation Rules with Examples" section in the chapter for that type of source for instruction on how to record the exact location of the quote you have used.
Example In-Text Citations
This is how Vancouver style in-text citations look when you paraphrase information from a source:
One study (1) found that juvenile patients were less anxious when having their blood drawn when their caregiver remained in the clinic's waiting room.
This is how Vancouver Style in-text citations look when you reference the findings of more than one study (note the use of a dash to cite several references listed consecutively):
However, other researchers found the presence of a caregiver decreased anxious feelings in young patients. (2,4,6-10)
This is how Vancouver style in-text citations look when you use a direct quotation from a source:
Kung recommends patient choice as best practice and encourages health care professionals to "give young patients clear choices for their care in language appropriate to their developmental level." (8 p3)