The RADAR Framework is a tool to help you remember the criteria used to evaluate the quality, credibility, and relevance of any source of information. Keep these principles in mind when considering the inclusion of any source - whether print, online or other media - in your assignment.
Relevance – How relevant is the information to your assignment?
- Ask yourself if the information relates to your topic or answers your research question.
- Consider what specific need this information is fulfilling. Do you need more sources on this specific aspect of your topic?
- Consider your audience and compare the information source with a variety of sources.
Authority – Who/what is the source (author, publisher) of the information?
- Check the credentials or qualifications of the author. Does the author have credibility through education or experience to be writing on the topic?
- If there is no author listed, evaluate the authority of the company/business/organization that published the information.
- Consider the affiliation of the author or publisher.
Date – When was the information first published or last updated?
- Consider if you need the most recent information on your topic.
- A general rule of thumb is to use content created in the last 5 years, but older content may be appropriate depending on your topic.
- Historical sources may need to be used to provide context.
Appearance – What does the source of information look like?
- Different source types have different elements that may affect the quality or level of information provided. Consider where the information was published. For example, is it published as a webpage, in an academic journal, in a trade publication, etc.?
- Consider the way the information is presented: articles supported by evidence and citations are more credible, while editorials, opinion pieces, and blog posts may be more subjective.
- Check who/what the author references and evaluate the quality of the information they use to support their argument.
- Check for advertisements - inclusion of ads isn't necessarily a red flag, but it may be depending on the content of the ads (are they related to the content in the source?)
Reason (for creation) – Why was the information published in the first place?
- Consider if the information was created to inform, teach, entertain, persuade, sell something, or for some other reason.
- Are there any clear biases in the information? To what degree is the information objective and impartial?
RADAR is not a yes/no test, or a be-all and end-all guide. Use RADAR to consider the relative quality of information as you are searching.
Using "Bad" Information
Biased, opinionated or even false information can be included in a research project to effectively highlight dissenting opinions or identify commonly held errors. The reliability of such information, however, should always be clearly identified and placed in context with more balanced sources.
If you are unsure about the quality of a source, don’t hesitate to contact the Library for help!