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IEEE Citation Style: Reference List

This guide provides information on the 2014 edition of the IEEE citation style as used at Southern Alberta Institute of Technology.

References List

The references list is the last page of your report and should include citations to every source of information used in the paper, other than personal communications such as interviews which only appear in the in-text citations.

The entries should appear in the order that the material is first cited in your report. Once a source has been cited within the text of the report, the same number is used in all subsequent references so each entry will appear on the list only once.

Looking for information on how to format your paper? IEEE does not provide explicit rules, but check the additional help section for more information.

Print Book - General Format

Reference:

[#] First Initial. Author Surname, Book Title: Subtitle, Edition, Volume. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year.

  • Include edition and volume if applicable.

Print Book - Example

Reference:

[2] L. J. Gurak, J. M. Lannon, and J. Seijts, A Concise Guide to Technical Communication, Second Canadian Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc., 2007.


e-Book - General Format

Reference:

[#] First Initial. Author Surname, Book Title: Subtitle, Edition, Volume. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. [Format]. Available: Source

  • Include edition and volume if applicable.

e-Book - Example

Reference:

[2] L. J. Gurak, J. M. Lannon, and J. Seijts, A Concise Guide to Technical Communication, Second Canadian Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc., 2007. [Online]. Available: Proquest Ebook Central 


Chapter in an Edited Book - General Format

Reference:

[#] First Initial. Author Surname, "Title of chapter," in Book title: Subtitle, Edition, Volume. Editor First Initial. Surname, Ed. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year, Page Numbers.

  • Include edition and volume as applicable.

Chapter in an Edited Book - Example

Reference:

[7] B. Stewart, "Wag of the tail: Reflecting on pet ownership," in Enriching our Lives with Animals, Vol. 2, J. Jameson, Ed. Toronto, ON: Petlove Press, 2007, pp. 97-105.


Software/Product Manual - General Format

Reference:

[#] Title of Manual, Company, Location of Company, edition OR version OR report number, Year. Pages [Format]. Available: internet address. [Accessed: Month Day, Year].

  • Include pages only if relevant.

Software/Product Manual - Example

Reference:

[8] Motorola Semiconductor Data Manual, Motorola Semiconductor Products Inc., Phoenix, AZ, 1965, pp. 44-60. [Online]. Available: https://archive.org/details /1965MotorolaSemiconductorDataManual/page/n915 [Accessed: July 3, 2019].


Tips:

  • For multiple authors, list the names in order presented in the source. The names of all authors should be given in the reference unless the number of authors is greater than six.
  • If there are more than six authors, you may use et al. after the name of the first author. Do not use a comma before et al.
  • Capitalize all important words in a title (and subtitle if given) of a book, periodical, or conference. 
  • For books, give the location of the publisher, followed by a colon(:) and the name of the publisher.
  • Looking for more tips and basic rules? Check the basic rules section of the guide.

Magazine or Journal Article - General Format

Reference:

[#] First Initial. Surname, "Title of article," Title of Journal, Volume, Number, Page Numbers, Month Year. [Format]. Available: Database Name OR DOI OR internet address. [Accessed: Month Day, Year].

Journal - Example

Reference:

[2] R. Abell, S. Morgan, and A. Morgan, “Taking high conservation value from forests to freshwaters,” Environmental Management, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 1 – 10, 2015. [Online]. Available: ProQuest, http://search.proquest.com. [Accessed: Aug. 4, 2016].

Magazine - Example

Reference:

[2] W. A. Henry and N. S. Mehta, "Beyond the melting pot", Time, vol. 135, pp. 28-31. [Online]. Available: http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,969770,00.html. [Accessed: Aug. 15, 2015].


Newspaper Article - General Format

Reference:

[#] First Initial. Surname, "Title of article," Title of Newspaper, Page Number, Month Day, Year. [Format]. Available: Database Name OR internet address. [Accessed: Month Day, Year].

Newspaper - Example

Reference:

[4] K. Severson and A. Martin, "It's organic, but does that mean it's safer?" The New York Times, p. B6, Mar. 3, 2009. [Online]. Available: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/04/dining/04cert.html?_r=0. [Accessed: May 1, 2016]


Conference Proceedings - General Format

Reference:

[#] First Initial, Surname. "Title of paper," in Conference Proceedings Title [Format], City of Conference, Country OR Abbreviated State (if given), year, page numbers. Available: doi OR Database name OR internet address. [Accessed: Month Day, Year].

Conference Proceedings - Example

Reference:

[4] A. Alshammari, S. Alhaidari, A. Alharbi, and M. Zohdy, "Security threats and challenges in cloud computing," in 2017 IEEE 4th Int. Conf. on Cyber Security and Cloud Computing (CSCloud) [Online], New York, NY, pp. 46-51. Available: doi:10.1109/CSCloud.2017.59. [Accessed: Dec. 4, 2017]. 

Conference Proceedings Tips:

  • Certain words are abbreviated in conference proceeding titles, like international (int.), conference (conf.), proceedings (proc.) and more. The most important principle is to be consistent with your abbreviations. For a full list, consult the IEEE Editorial Style Manual.
  • If the date is listed in the conference title, you do not need to include it later in the reference list entry.
  • The above is a general format. Depending on how the proceeding or paper was published (if at all) and how you accessed it, the format may vary. 

Tips:

  • For multiple authors, list the names in order presented in the source. The names of all authors should be given in the reference unless the number of authors is greater than six.
  • If there are more than six authors, you may use et al. after the name of the first author. Do not use a comma before et al.
  • Capitalize all important words in a title (and subtitle if given) of a book, periodical, or conference. 
  • For periodicals, give the volume number, issue number, and page range after the periodical title.
  • Looking for more tips and basic rules? Check the basic rules section of the guide.

Website - General Format

Reference:

[#] First Initial. Surname, "Title of webpage," Website Name, Abbreviated Month, Day, Year. [Format]. Available: internet address. [Accessed: Month Day, Year].

Website - Example with Authors

Reference:

[28] K. Bonsor and J. Strickland, "How nanotehnology works," HowStuffWorks, Oct. 25, 2007. [Online]. Available: https://science.howstuffworks.com/nanotechnology1.htm. [Accessed: December 1, 2017].

Website - Example without Authors

Reference:

[29] "Volumetric 3D printing promises nearly instant builds," ScienceDaily, n.d. [Online]. Available: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/12/171208171824.htm. [Accessed: December 1, 2017].

Tips:

  • If there is no personal author, look for a corporate or organizational author.
  • If you cannot identify any author, begin the entry with the title of the work, including the appropriate capitalization and italics formatting.
  • If a publication or creation date cannot be found on a website, use "n.d." in place of the date.
  • The copyright date at the bottom of the website is often not the date of publication. If you aren't sure, use "n.d." as explained above.
  • The "Title of Webpage" is the title of the current page you are on, while the Website Name is the name of the website you are on.
    • For instance, the "Title of Webpage" for this page would be: "IEEE citation style: Reference list", while the Website's Name would be: Reg Erhardt Library
  • Looking for more tips and basic rules? Check the basic rules section of the guide.

Report - General Format

Reference:

[#] First Initial. Surname, "Title of document," Organization Name, Place of Publication, Report Number, Year. [Format]. Available: internet address. [Accessed: Month Day, Year].

Report - Example

Reference:

[1] G. Glass, "Electrical safety program: Nonelectrical crafts at LANL, Live #12175," Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, NM, LA-UR--16-29637, 2016. [Online]. Available: doi:10.2172/1338684. [Accessed: May 1, 2018].


Looking for Technical Manuals or Software Manuals?   Go to the Books tab.

Tips:

  • If there is no personal author, look for a corporate or organizational author.
  • Include place of publication and report number when available.
  • Looking for more tips and basic rules? Check the basic rules section of the guide.

Online Video - General Format

Reference:

[#] First Initial. Surname, “Video title,” Website, Date Video Uploaded, Year. [Format]. Available: internet address. [Accessed: Month Day, Year].

Online Video - Example

Reference:

[4] HKUST Library, “How to cite in IEEE style?,” YouTube, Oct. 9, 2013. [Video File]. Available: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=18uWvm6W4bc. [Accessed: Jan. 12, 2015].


Motion Picture/Video/Film - General Format

Reference:

[#] First Initial. Surname, Responsibility, Video Title: Subtitle [Format]. Publication Location: Publisher, Year.

  • Include responsibility statement (person's role) as applicable.

Motion Picture/Video/Film - Example

Reference:

[18] I. Holm, Narrator, and J. Fullerton-Smith, Producer, How to Build a Human [DVD]. London: BBC, 2002.

Tip:

  • If there is no personal author, look for a corporate or organizational author.
  • If you are unable to determine the actual name of the author, list the screen name as the author entry.
  • The Murdoch University has examples of other media formats (sound recordings, television programs, DVDs) on their IEEE citation site.
  • Looking for more tips and basic rules? Check the basic rules section of the guide.

Standard or Code - General Format

Reference:

[#] Title, Standards organization, Standard number, date.

  • Omit the date if it is included in the standard number.

Standard or Code  - Example

Reference:

[18] Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section I - Rules for Construction of Power Boilers, ASME BPVC PT.1, 2015.


Tips:

Class Lecture, Module, or PowerPoint

NOTE: Use this format to cite module content or a set of notes from a lecture (e.g., power point slides provided by your instructor). To cite something from a lecture that was not provided in a written format, use the "personal communication" format (see below).

Module

General Format:

[#] First Initial. Surname, Title of document. Organization,  Date.

Example:

[45] McPhail School of Energy, ELE 321 Lab Module 4. SAIT, 2016.

 Lecture Notes or PowerPoint Sets from D2L

General Format:

[#] First Initial. Surname, "Title of document," from Class Name.  Organization,  Date. [Format]. Available: Desire2Learn. [Accessed: Month Day, Year].

Example:

[45] J. Smith, "Paraphrasing Notes PowerPoint," from COMN 220 Communication and Presentation Skills. SAIT, 2016. [Online]. Available: Desire2Learn. [Accessed: Aug. 1, 2016].

Tip:

  • If there is no personal author, look for a corporate or organizational author.

Google Maps

General Format:

[#] Corporation Name. “Map title.” [Online]. Available: URL. [Accessed Month and day, year].

Example:

[45] Google. "Google Maps directions for driving from Calgary, AB to Edmonton, AB." [Online]. Available: https://goo.gl/maps/S6KVrFnSa6C2. [Accessed July 10, 2018].

Maps Generated from Software

General Format:

[#] Corporation Name, "Map title." Scale. Site or Software Name. Date. [Format]. Available: URL. [Accessed: Month Day, Year].

Example:

[22] Esri, "Topographic". Scale not given. World Topographic Map. February 19, 2012. [Online]. Available: http://www.arcgis.com/home/item.html?id=30e5fe3149c34df1ba922e6f5 bbf808f. [Accessed: May 1, 2017].

Tip:

  • Many maps on the web do not have easily identifiable title or date information.  If you cannot locate a date, use "n.d." in that location.  If a title is not provided, use a descriptive title within brackets.
  • The format for a print map will be [Map], while an online map is indicated with [Online].

Personal Communications 

According to IEEE guidelines, personal communications (e.g., emails, phone calls, and interviews) are not typically included in the list of references. Instead, identify the author, including their title, within the text of your report

Example:

In a letter, Dr. Sarah Smith from School of Construction at SAIT, claimed that many of her students enjoyed working with the IEEE style.

Consult your instructor to confirm whether you are required to list interviews, emails, phone calls, and lectures as part of the References page. 


Online Image

To create a citation for a table, chart, or image within the list of references, list the citation number and cite according to the format for the type of source where you found the image (e.g., image found in book, journal, website). See the other examples on this page for assistance.


Secondary Sources
A secondary source is one that is discussed by the author you are reading. You do not read the original report but instead get the information second-hand from the author.  IEEE guidelines do not allow the use of secondary sources. Because you did not read the original report, you  cannot include it in your research. Contact a librarian to assist you with locating the original source.

Tips:

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